History of the United States
The history of the founding of the United States of America (USA / United States of America) is interesting to note because America is a superpower the world who control the economy, military, and technological world.
United States located in the middle of the North American continent, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. Country United States stretches from the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast to the Pacific Ocean on the west coast, including the islands of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean, the state of Alaska in the northern tip of the American continent, and some other territories.
The first settlers what is now the United States come from Asia about 15,000 years ago. They crossed the Bering land bridge into Alaska. Furthermore, Native Americans lived in the area for thousands of years. In 1492, ChristopherColumbus managed to reach America. British people then settled in Jamestown in 1607. The neighborhood is considered to be the first settlement in the United States. Furthermore, the United States continues to be visited by the British people. The French, Spanish, and Dutch also settled in most of the United States. The development of the British colonies ended not good for Native Americans, because many of those who died from the disease, and they lost their land.
United States is made up of 13 former British colonies after the American Revolution after the declaration of independence on July 4, 1776. This war started because the colonists feel unfairly treated by the British.
After the Revolution, the United States faces many problems, such as slavery. In the 1800s, the US gained a lot of area to start terindustralisasi. From 1861 to 1865, the American Civil War raged between North and South. This war caused because of disputes over the rights of states, slavery, and the future of the United States. Several states in the South to leave the United States and founded the Confederation.
North won the war, and countries that had left the union returned to the United States. The country then through a period of reconstruction. In the late 1800s, many Europeans come to the United States and worked in a big factory. At the beginning of the 20th century, the US became a world power. Its economy is one of the largest in the world. The country is also involved in World War I and II.
After World War II, the United States engaged in the Cold War with the Union Soviet.Selama Cold War, the government spent a lot of funds for defense. The US was involved in the Korean War and Vietnam, and also sent Neil Armstrong and another American people into space. In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended. Middle East becomes important for Americans, especially after the attacks of 11 September 2001. Today, the United States is a superpower, but still faces some problems.
The ancestors of Native Americans came from Asia. They crossed the Bering land bridge into Alaska.
Bering land bridge, known as Beringia, a land bridge. On the line farthest from north to south, its length is approximately 1,600 km, connecting Alaska now with eastern Siberia at various times in the Pleistocene ice age. Beringia was not covered in ice because of the snow which fell very slightly due to the monsoon that waft from the Pacific Ocean has lost most of the steam water over the mountains of Alaska are completely covered with snow.
Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea to the north and the Bering Sea in the south, are all shallow seas (map, right). In the cycle of global cooling, as happened most recently in the ice age, there are quite a lot of sea water which is concentrated in the tops of the ice in the Arctic and Antarctica so that a decrease in sea surface uniform (eustatic) presented the shallow sea floor. Bridges other land around the world have formed and re-covered by the sea in the same way: around 14,000 years ago, the Australian mainland are connected either with Guinea and Tasmania, the British Isles is an extension of mainland Europe through the English Channel, and the basin dried Sea South China connecting Sumatra, Java and Borneo to the Asian mainland.
Pre-Columbian period is the period before the arrival of Christopher Columbus to America in 1492. At that time, the Native Americans living in the US. They have different cultures: the indigenous population in the United States east of hunting; indigenous people in the United States northwest catch fish; indigenous people in southwest grow corn and built a house called pueblo; and indigenous peoples in the Great Plains bison hunt.
Indian tribes were the first settlers of North America came from Asia more than 20,000 years ago. Because following the game, they wandered past the Bering Strait (formerly the isthmus, now dividing Asia and North America). Gradually they settled and developed into various tribes. Centuries they built orderly society. In the 16th century, Europeans arrived in North America for the first time. Thinking arrived in India (Asia), they mistakenly called the natives that the "Indian". Europeans want the land. Therefore the existence of indigenous peoples is threatened. The Indians then fought against the new settlers. In the 19th century, the Indians against the US government tried to evict them. Through a fierce struggle, the Indians moved to reservat, special areas for them. Until now, many Indians still live there.
The British tried to establish a settlement on Roanoke Island in 1585, but did not last long. In 1607, the first British settlement that can survive standing in Jamestown, Virginia. The neighborhood was founded by John Smith, John Rolfe, and the British people more interested in the riches and adventure. Colony in Virginia almost failed to survive because of disease and hunger, but succeeded because of tobacco cultivation.
In 1621, a group of English people who called Pilgrim Fathers (who fled due to dispute with church schools) settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Larger colony built by the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay in 1630. Instead of finding gold, Pilgrims and Puritans were more interested in making a better society, which they dubbed the "city on a hill." Roger Williams, who was kicked out of Massachusetts, founded the colony of Rhode Island in 1636.
Britain is not the only country that settled in what is now the United States. In the 1500s, Spain established a fort in Saint Augustine, Florida. French settled in Canada and the area around the Great Lakes. The Dutch established a colony in New York, which they called New Netherland. Other areas settled by the Scots-Irish, German, and Swedish.
The development of the colony is a bad thing for Native Americans. They lost their country, and many of those who died of variola, the disease that brought Europeans to America.
In the early 1700s, emerging religious movement called Awakening Movement. Awakening Movement was one of the first events in American history that is a "great movement", or something that involves a lot of Americans. Awakening movement, along with the Salem Witch Punishment, the American response to the situation at the time, and it may affect the rationale used in the American Revolution.
In 1733, there were thirteen colonies. The colonies are usually grouped menjadiNew England (New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut), colonies of Central (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware), and South (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia). New England had small farms, and more reliant on fishing, shipping, and small industries. Southern colonies had tobacco and cotton plantations. These gardens was originally worked by workers who are willing to work a few years to pay the entrance to the American and the ground, and then by slaves. Middle colonies have a small farm, and is known to have diverse cultures and beliefs.
Thirteen colonies are bound by the "economy of the Atlantic", which involves the use of ships for the slave trade, tobacco, rum, sugar, gold, spices, fish, timber and manufactured goods, the United States, the West Indies, Europe, and Africa. New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Charleston is a city and major port at the time.
From 1754 to 1763, Britain and France engaged in a war called the Seven Years War. England won the war. France handed over to the British colonies in Canada, and handed Louisiana to Spain; Spain cede Florida to the UK. Furthermore, the UK issued a Proclamation of 1763, which states that people who live in the thirteen colonies can not be settled in the west of the Appalachians.
Revival Movement (The Great Awakening) spearheaded by the development of Pietism which are plagued Europe and America. This movement is described as a unique waveform that foreshadowed the rise of the colonial countries in 1740-1742. This movement became known as the beginning of the evangelical movement. There are four periods of this revival movement. Each has characteristics spread very rapidly, led by the evangelical pastor, gave a very sharp increase in interest in religion and a profound impact on guilt and forgiveness to someone. This has resulted in evangelical churches experienced a great leap forward in terms of numbers and bring a new form of religious movements and denominations (including Baptist Church).
Salem Witch Punishment is punishment of people accused of being a witch in the County of Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex, in the colony of Massachusetts during the period between February 1692 and May 1693. This event was described as the dangers of religious extremism and false accusation.
The American revolution
After the Seven Years' War, the colonists began to feel they are not getting their rights. Besides the Proclamation of 1763, they feel unfairly treated because of the tax collected by the British government. The colonists declared "No taxation without representation", which means they ask that they have a voice in the British Parliament. The taxes include Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Act (1765), Townsend Duties (1767), and the Tea Act (1773). In 1770, the Boston Tea Party incident occurred. Colonists in Boston throw out hundreds of boxes of tea overboard in Boston Harbor, in response to the Tea Act. British troops then took over Boston, which resulted in the founding of the Continental Congress, composed of leaders of each of the 13 colonies. Important figures in the Congress was Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock, Roger Sherman, and John Jay.
In 1776, Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet Common Sense, which states that the colonies should be independent from Britain. On July 4, 1776, the thirteen colonies to agree to the Declaration of Independence of the United States. Colonists have engaged in battle with the British in the American Revolutionary War. The war began in 1775 at Lexington and Concord. Although American troops under the leadership of George Washington many defeats, they won the war after the victory at Yorktown assisted by France. Treaty of Paris was signed, and the British withdraw all its troops from the United States.
The Declaration of Independence is an act of the Second Continental Congress adopted on July 4, 1776 which stated that the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain. This declaration, which is mostly written by Thomas Jefferson, explaining justification or justifications to escape, and the development of a Lee Resolution dated July 2 for the first time the US declared independence. A copy of the declaration was signed by the delegates on August 2 and is now on display at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C. This declaration is regarded as one of the founding document of the United States and the 4th of July is celebrated as Independence Day.
FEDERAL PERIOD 1781-1815
In 1781, the colonies prepare a Union through the Articles of Confederation, but only lasted for six years. Most of the power is transferred to the states, and only a little power to the central government. In addition, there is no president. Articles of Confederation also can not stop the Native Americans or the British at the border, and also unable to stop the uprising as Shays Rebellion '. After the uprising Shays', many people feel the Articles of Confederation had failed.
The United States Constitution was written in 1787. The characters who helped write the constitution, such as Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and Gouverneur Morris, a major American thinkers of the period. Some leaders will hold important positions in the new government. This Constitution established a national government that is more robust and has three branches: the executive (the President and his cabinet), the legislature (the House of Representatives and the Senate Rayat), and judicial (federal courts). This constitution was ratified by the states in 1788.
In 1789, Washington was elected as the first president. In his tenure, Whiskey Rebellion erupted. Farmers in the countryside trying to stop collecting taxes on whiskey. In 1795, Congress approved the Jay Treaty, which opens up trade with Britain. This Treaty created with the aim of improving relations with Britain. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison strongly oppose this treaty.
In elections in 1796, John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson. This election is an election between two first political party in the United States. As president, Adams made the Army and Marine USA becomes larger, but also passed a law to close the newspapers that write bad things about him.
Jefferson defeated Adams in the election in 1800. One of the important things he did as president was bought Louisiana from France. Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to map the Louisiana Purchase. President Jefferson also tried to stop trade with Britain and France, who were involved in the war. War broke out between the United States and Britain in 1812 when James Madison was president. This was called the War of 1812.
EXPANSION, INDUSTRY, AND SLAVERY (1815-1861)
One of the problems in this period is slavery. In 1861, more than three million African-Americans became slaves in the South. Most work picking cotton on a large estate. South wanted to be a perpetual institution, while the North seeks to end it.
After the War of 1812, America experienced a "Era of Good Feelings" under President James Madison and James Monroe. Under Monroe, US policy in North America is the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that America should no longer colonized by European countries. At this time also, Congress asked the "American system", ie by spending funds for the banking, transportation, and communication, so that cities become larger and factories were built. One of the major transport project in this period is the Erie Canal in New York. In the 1840s, the railway line was also built. Thousands of miles of rail and telegraph lines have been built in the United States in 1860.
Industry in the United States is also growing. Many factories were built in the northeast cities like Lowell, Massachusetts. Most factories produce garments. Most workers in the factory are women, and most of the children from Ireland and Germany. Despite industrialization, the livelihoods of most Americans at that time were farmers.
In the early and mid-1800s, the Movement launched the Second Great Awakening. This movement started in New York Awakening movement closely associated with the anti-slavery movement in the United States.
Andrew Jackson was elected president in 1828. Most of his supporters are the poor who have never voted before, so he gave them a job as a "gift". In addition, he also set high import taxes that are not liked by the South. Jackson's vice president, John C. Calhoun, who comes from the South, wrote that the South should stop the policy and leave the United States.
People began moving to the west of the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains at this time. The first people who moved to the West is the person selling the skins of animals. In the 1840s, many people moved to Oregon, and more and more people are moving to the West after the California Gold Rush in 1849. Native Americans increasingly pressured by events such as expulsion (the so-called Trail of Tears) and the Black Hawk War.
In 1845, Texas, who had left Mexico, joined with the United States. Mexico does not like it, and the Americans wanted Mexican territory on the West Coast. As a result, the Mexican-American War broke out. The US managed to win this war, and gained the area of California and the Southwestern United States. The people in the North do not like this war, because they feel the war is only for the benefit of the South.
California Gold Rush occurs when a number of people go to the mountains in California to find gold, which began when James Wilson Marshall discovered gold while building a sawmill for John Sutter in 1848. Hundreds of thousands of people went to California. However, some people remain at home and opened a store suppliers that equip them all with mining equipment.
Many people who became rich, but some are not. In addition to trying to find gold, some people started to sell the goods. Sometimes a woman can receive more than her husband is mine. People like Levi Strauss also sell goods. It finds and sells jeans are made from denim. California Gold Rush ended in 1855, at that time, gold miners returned home because gold increasingly difficult to find.
Mexican-American War took place between 1846 and 1848 between the United States and Mexico. War was coming from land disputes.
This war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The agreement gives a lot of ground to the United States from Mexico. In turn, Mexico received 15 million dollars. Outside of this land, the US cut off-ngerat many states, including California, Arizona, and Utah.
YOUR WAR AMERICA
The division of state during the American Civil War. Blue indicates the North Country (Union), light blue color shows the members of the North Country that allowed slavery, the red color indicates the Confederate States of America, and white colors indicate states that did not participate.
In the 1840s and 1850s, North and South less like each other because of differences, such as:
Northern Economy is based on industry, while based on the agrarian South.
Northern states do not require a slave, while the South is need slaves. People in the South are also angry with books like Uncle Tom's Cabin which states that slavery is wrong.
North has the Republican Party, while the South has the Democratic Party.
Differences of views on the federal government authority.
The American Civil War was a war that occurred between 1861 and 1865 in the United States (US). A group of states in the south want independence, while the government and the states in the north want to keep the US remain intact.
The American Civil War is becoming one of the first war that shows war armaments industry in human history. Making the railways, steamships, weapons of mass production, and various other military equipment made in man-where. The practice of total war, developed by Sherman in Georgia and the trench warfare around Petersburg became one of the tactics used in World War I in Europe.
The division of state during the American Civil War. Blue indicates the North Country (Union), light blue color shows the members of the North Country that allowed slavery, the red color indicates the Confederate States of America, and white colors indicate states that did not join the American Civil War
In the South, many people who become slaves in the hands of others, and most of the farm work is done by them. While states in the north have decided to make a law stating that no one could have / enslave others. Northern countries it is called "free state" and in the South "slave state". In addition, most of the land owned by the US in the west has not been divided over the state, but the territory, where the population is not indigenous people live. Unlike the state, territory that does not help decide who will be president and territories did not send representatives to Washington, DC to make the law across the country. Many white people who moved there and everyone agrees that one day all the territories it should be called a state. In the north, the states want it to be a free country. In the south, people want it to be a slave state. Abraham Lincoln came from the north and when he raced for the sake of the presidency, he said that all of the state will be the state free although he does not plan sent every slave in the slave state. Slave owners in the south also fear some people who say they want to make it a crime to own slaves in all parts of the US. There are many people in the north who live in cities and work in factories and they want policies that help the economy. But many people in the south who live in small towns and worked on the farm, and want your policy to support the economy. They often can not agree on the best decision.
When Lincoln won the election and became the new president, many slave states which split the United States and form a new nation, the Confederate States of America State, with its capital at Richmond, Virginia.
On February 4, 1861, before Lincoln took office, seven states have declared to join the Union. State taper on March 4 and a small rebellion began to emerge. By the end of 1861, Missouri and Kentucky were divided, Pro-South (Konfenderasi) and Pro-North (Union / Government)
There are 23 states loyal to the Union during the war, namely: California, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentuky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin.
While seven states are members of the Confederation, namely: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. In this civil war, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina followed to join the Confederacy. To deal with the war, the Confederate states formed the Confederate Army.
There are two important areas where the war took place-in the west and in the east.
In the east, there is the US capital, Washington, District of Columbia, and the Confederate capital at Richmond. The two cities just 90 miles. In this area, the military leader of the Confederation was Robert E. Lee. Lee is a genius and a lot of generals who win battles, including the First Battle of Bull Run, and the Second Battle of Bull Run and managed to push the Union army retreated, to successfully inhibited by Union troops in the Battle of Antietam. However, the Battle Gettysburglah which is a turning point in the war. Battle of Gettysburg many casualties, both from the Union and the Confederacy, but the number of Confederate forces less than Union troops, sehinnga clear losses were in the Confederacy. Since the war, the Confederate almost never again launch an attack.
In the western region, the area of the Mississippi River. In this region, the Confederate forces suffered many defeats. Union forces led by Ulysses Grant (who later became President of the USA) winning the battle here. Union troops occupied almost all the cities in the Mississippi River, but still holds the Confederation of Vicksburg. On July 4, 1863, Vicksburg finally surrendered to Ulysses. It divides the area into two parts Confederation and pave the way to attack the heart of the defense of the Confederacy.
Lincoln decided that Ulysses was his best generals. He lifted Ulysses as a general in the east. Grant attacked Lee back in Operation Appomattox. Lee realizes his troops had lost much and he finally surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1985. The surrender of Lee marking the destruction of the Confederate states.
Victory for Union Confederation but an end state, also put an end to the practice of slavery in the United States, and strengthen the position of the federal government. Social, political, economic, and racial after the war successfully completed in 1877.
Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg in the Southern United States, took place on 17 September 1862 near Sharpsburg, Maryland. This battle was a major battle in the United States of America North. Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest one day battle in American history, about 23 thousand soldiers were killed in this incident. Although tactically not completed because of Robert Edward Lee of the Confederate States America withdrew his troops to Virginia, this war provide sufficient victory for the North so that Abraham Lincoln declared the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.
Battle of Gettysburg (1-3 July 1863), going around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, is a battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War and is considered the turning point of the war. The Union succeeded in winning this battle against the Confederacy.
Military operations Appomattox (March 29 1865-9 April 1865) is a series of battles in Virginia that ended with the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia under the command of Confederate general Robert E. Lee and marks the completion of the American Civil War.
Since June 1864, the Union army under the command of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had surrounded Lee's army in the town of Petersburg, Virginia. Both sides spent the winter in a series of ditches in the area of almost 56 km. Once during the winter, Grant urged bit by bit to the west, the Confederate army widened the perimeter. But they lack the warrior, the defensive line just defend one kilometer around 625 soldiers. Lee knew that his troops can not survive continuously, and wanted to get out of the siege when spring arrives, when the rain stopped and the roads impassable.
Appomattox military operation was preceded by the Battle of Fort Stedman March 25, 1865 being the last battle in the Siege of Petersburg. General Lee's last attempt to break the siege Lt. Gen. Grant at Petersburg resulted in a large number of casualties on the Confederate side. Lee tried to prevent Grant that will immediately grab the only South Side Railroad Confederation supply lines. If it was taken Grant, the Confederate Army would lose.
Lee was recently appointed as the commander of all Confederate soldiers. For nearly three years, his post was commander of Northern Virginia. After his release from the siege in Petersburg, Lee plans to resign to the southwest, supplying army supplies in Lynchburg, Virginia, and headed south. There, Army of Virginia might join forces with General Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina. Lee hopes to defeat Union troops under the command of Major General William T. Sherman who was fighting against the forces of Johnston. Then together forces Johnston, Lee Grant troops are planning to strike back. in an attempt to break the siege, Lee moved troops to the front line right wing.
Meanwhile, Grant received additional troops. Gen. Philip Sheridan has returned from the Shenandoah Valley. James army under the command of Major General Edward Ord Petersburg joined on the front lines, so that the forces under the command of Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren and Andrew A. Humphreys could be preparing to attack Lee's army.
RECONSTRUCTION AND Gilded Age
Lincoln was re-elected as president in 1864. However, while attending a play at Ford's Theatre, Washington, D.C., he was shot by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln became the first American president who was killed. He was replaced by Andrew Johnson.
At this time, the 13th amendment, 14, and 15 approved. Then the slaves were freed and become citizens. They also have voting rights. Congress at that time ruled by "Radical Republicans", who wants to punish the South after the Civil War. They do not like Johnson and almost stop position. They also sent troops to South and South to force approved amendments 14 and 15. South do not like this, and make laws "Jim Crow" that put black people in roles that low and forcing them to work as a poor farmer. Whites in the South also founded the Ku Klux Klan attacked black people.
United States attended by immigrants from many countries, such as Ireland, Italy, Germany, Eastern Europe, and China. Most of them work in big factories and live in a big city, like New York City, Chicago, and Boston. They usually inhabit the apartment is small, poor, and adjacent. These migrants are often used as a "political machine". They were given a job and money, in exchange for a vote in the election.
"The machines politics" has control of the government in the last decade of the 19th century. Most of the elected president because of the political machine. Large business owners often have more power than the government. An example is John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and J.P. Morgan.
Transcontinental railway line was completed in 1869. The line was helped ease transportation in the United States. Chicago, where paths meet, the center of trade between East and West.
progressivism AND IMPERIALISM
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the United States became more active in foreign affairs. In 1898, the United States fought against Spain. The US won the war, and the control of Puerto Rico, Guam, Guantanamo, and the Philippines. Coupled with the purchase of Alaska and the takeover of Hawaii, the United States has obtained the entire region today, plus some areas to be separated after World War II.
In 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became president of the United States. He has a foreign policy that is called the "Big Stick". The idea is that [the US] should have a large navy and oversight of Latin America. Between 1900 and 1930, the United States several times sent soldiers to Latin America. When Theodore Roosevelt's tenure, the excavation of the Panama Canal begins.
Woodrow Wilson was elected president in 1912. He was a progressive, but not entirely similar Roosevelt.