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Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives


According to Robert F. Mager (1962) says that the learning objectives are to be achieved or behavior that can be done by the students on certain conditions and level of competence.
Kemp (1977) and David E. Chapel (1981) states that the purpose of learning a specific statement that expressed in behavior or appearance that is embodied in written form to describe the expected learning outcomes.
Henry Ellington (1984) that the learning objectives are forward looking statements can be achieved as a result of learning. Meanwhile, Oemar Hamalik (2005) states that the purpose of learning is a description of the behavior that is expected to be achieved by students after learning takes place.

Although experts provide formulation of learning objectives are diverse, but all point to the same essence, that:
the purpose of learning is to achieve changes in behavior or competence in students after participating in learning activities;
objectives formulated in the form of a specific statement or description.
What is interesting to note that of the thought Kemp and David E. Chapel that the formulation of learning objectives must be realized in written form. This implies that each learning plan should be made in writing (written plan).

      1.      Learning Objectives Cognitive

Cognitive region that is region-related aspects of intellectual aspekk or thinking / reasoning such as knowledge, understanding, and thinking skills. Cognitive learning objectives students are expected to:
Knowing, that is studying and considering the facts, words, terms, events, concepts, rules, categories, methodology, theory, and so on.
Understand, namely interpreting something, translate it in another form, put it in their own words, conclusions based on what is known, suspected due to something based on knowledge, etc.
Apply, ie use what is learned in a new situation, transfer.
Analyze, which describes a whole in part-bagianuntuk see the nature of the parts and the relationship between the parts of it.
Synthesize, which combine the parts and creatively to form something new.
Evaluating, which uses criteria to judge anything.

     2.     Psychomotor Learning Objectives

Psychomotor region is the region with regard to aspects of skills that involve the nervous system and muscle function and function fsikis. Psychomotor learning objectives, it is expected that the students:
Perception, able to pick and choose bagia organs that would be used. Example: when we would play the ball we will prepare organs hands and feet.
Readiness, able to prepare organs to be used. (heating)
Guided movement, is able to be guided. Example: one year old children need to be guided to wear pants, as well as students need to be guided to understand the lessons.
Accustomed movement, able to learn on their own without any guidance. Example: children aged 6 years old do not need to be guided more to wear pants. Likewise, the students, do not need to be guided more to learn, because it was used. So that students can learn independently.
Complex movements, capable of flexibility. In the first time the student is able to do many activities. For example, memorizing, writing in a state run.
Adjustment, adaptive circumstances. For example, students are confronted with the teacher, the student is able to adjust with whom he was speaking, so that the student is not wrong to say and behave.
Creativity, able to create new movement patterns / new style. Typical nature, others do not have and do not imitate others.
The purpose of learning psychomotor else is that the students are able to:
Doing physical movements such as running, jumping, running, pulling, pushing, and manipulate.
Show the ability of visual perceptual, auditory, taktial, kinesthetic, and coordinate entirely.
Demonstrate the ability to physically containing kekutan endurance, flexibility, agility and speed to react
Movement of skilled and coordinated in games, sports, and arts

Holding a non-verbal communication, which can convey motion pesanmelalui face, hand gestures, looks, and creative expression such as dance.
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