THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION
A. Definition Of Psychology Of Communication
By George A. Miller, communication psychology is a science that seeks decipher, predict and control the mental and behavioral events in communication.Communication psychology is the study of the psychology of communication. (Jalaludin Grace) Communication psychology is the science of menelitik consciousness and human experience.
B. Theory Of Psychology Of Communication
1. Cultivation Theory
Cultivation theory see how television shaping our view of what is desired social world. Cultivation theory is based on several assumptions -asumsi about television and how we see it. These assumptions do not precede a research program but it has been developing as a theory in this research tradition accumulate more and more evidence of how we watch television and effects of television on daily life and worldview. These assumptions summa-rized by Gerbner (1990).
Television has definitely changed on many levels. But these changes are superficial. Underlying values, demographics, ideologies and power relations have been realized only slight fluctuations with almost no significant deviations from the installation over time, despite the fact that the social changes that have occurred. Cultivation theory has also developed ideas on how we view television. In particular, they argue that "viewers are watching the clock" (Gerbner, 1990, 54). Cultivation theory insisted arguing that culture is not a simple stimulus or response models, model change in one direction, or model reinforcement (suitable Signorielli Morgan, 1990).
Cultivation theory most often tested by comparing the content of television and the trust people about the nature of the world. At the beginning and defining work Gerbner and his colleagues, the two pieces of the puzzle are referred to as content analysis and analysis of cultural indicators. The first step to test the theory of aquaculture is the determination of television content through conten analysis. Second, testing the cultivation process involves assessing individual beliefs about the world what kind of world. Then the cultivation analysis tested the hypothesis that consists of a comparison between the information of viewers and heavy television viewers. If the 80 heavy television viewers tend to provide a more appropriate answer to the television response, researchers will have support for the hypothesis cultivation. Some of the earliest of criticism cultivation theory recorded a relatively small effect was found for the cultivation process and the fact that the effect was further reduced when controlling the amount of the relevant demographic variables (eg, age, sex, education). Potter (1991a, 1993) have argued that the relationship between television viewing and world view may not be linear and symmetrical alleged by the cultivation theory.
2. Spiral of Silence Theory
Spiral of silence theory, an attempt to explain how the mediated interpersonal communication and working together to silence the voices of thick books in the public debate and influence the ebb and flow of public opinion.
Spiral of silence theory proposes that people will be reluctant to express their opinions if they become believers today is contrary to their own opinion or if they believe that opinions have changed in the direction contrary to their own opinion. Noelle-Neumann believe that this effect will be very firm with respect to the dynamic prediction of public opinion on an issue and will depend on future assessment of opinion when current and future assessment disagree. Noelle-Neumann saw spiral of silence theory as a theory encompasses all public opinion that connect different social psychological processes, interper sonal communication, and mass media.
Noelle-Neumann also viewed spiral of silence as a dynamic process. Noelle-Neumann believe that the reluctance to speak on a particular issue will further improve personal media portrayal and considered that the prevailing opinion against some opinions. As an illustration, and this assessment be further modified, some individuals will be disabled with the opinion seems to prevail or at least failed to recruit new people who are less dominant. As a result, the actual opinions and predictions will follow the opinion of the downward spiral.
Noelle-Neumann did not propose that the spiral of silence is a thorough process ,, but he pointed to three warning which limits the application of theory to specific issues and people. First, the theory will be open only when the problem is both good and bad moral issue, not a factual issue that can be debated and resolved through rational and logical interaction. Second, note that the reluctance to speak out will be less pronounced in the highly educated and the more affluent sections of the population. Third, for each topic are hard core supporters will always be willing to speak on an issue, consider the perception that is less than the prevailing opinion in the opposite direction.
3. Theory of Communication Media and Society Agenda Setting Theory
This theory is a portrait of how the mass media to organize and influence the public in determining the information. The mass media can create an information agenda that will be considered important by society. Likewise news which is not considered important by the media will be important also in the community. In setting the agenda of opinions on a particular topic of mass media can influence public oponi and public perception of a thing. One of them can be exemplified, news stories about making or claims of some cultures Negara Malaysia to Indonesia which eventually led to a negative public opinion against the State Malayasia regarded as thieves ownership of another person. Other examples of current mass media reported an ugliness of a company that are considered harmful to society, then that moment, the public response to the company would be bad.
4. Theory bullet or hypodermic needles
This bullet theory is the concept of the early effects of mass communication by communications experts in the 1970s is also called the Hypodermic Needle Theory (theory hypodermic needle). This theory was shown in the 1950s after the broadcast radio station broadcasting a kaleidoscope of CBS in America called The Invansion from Mars (Effendy.1993: 264-265).
The term model of a hypodermic needle in mass communication is defined as the mass media to effect a strong, direct, purposeful, and soon. Effect immediately and directly in line with the understanding Stimulus-response known since research in psychology in the 1930s.
Model syringe is essentially a stream of one stage (one-step flow), ie the mass media directly to the audience as a mass audiance. This model assumes the mass media direct, fast, and has a powerful effect on mass audiance. The mass media is commensurate with the theory of Stimulus-Response (S-R) mechanistic and often used in psychology research between 1930 and 1940. The S-R theory teaches, each stimulus will produce a response spontaneously and automatically as a reflex. As if our hands exposed to sparks (S) then spontaneously, automatically and reflective of our hands we will flounce (R) as a response in the form of dodge move. Responses in this example is very mechanistic and automatic, without waiting for orders from the brain.
Bullet theory or hypodermic needles mengansumsikan that the media has a very powerful force and communicant considered passive or do not know anything. This theory mengansumsikan that a communicator can shoot bullets so magical communication to the audience helpless (passive).
5. Theory of use and fulfilment
Theory of Use and Fulfillment (English: Uses and Gratification Theory) is one of the theories of communication in which the emphasis of research carried out at the viewer as a determinant of electoral and media messages.
Viewers seen as individuals active and have a purpose, they are responsible for the selection of media that they will use to meet their needs and these individuals know their needs and how to fulfill it. Media considered only be one way of fulfilling the needs of the individual may be using the media to meet their needs, or do not use the media and choose another way.
Theory of Use and Fulfillment Using this approach focuses on the audience member. Where this theory tries to explain about how the audience choose the media they want. Where they are audience / audience who actively choose and have different needs and desires of different - different in consuming media.
According to its founder, Elihu Katz, Jay G. Blumlerm and Michael Gurevitch uses and gratifications researching the origin of the psychological and social needs, which raises certain expectations of the media or other sources, which led to different patterns of media exposure, and raises fulfillment and other consequences. This approach is in contrast to compare the effects of media and not the 'what media do the viewers' (criticism of the theory of hypodermic needles, where the audience is passive obejk only accept what was given media).
As is known, that the human needs that have different motives - different. In other words, every orangm emiliki background, experience and a different environment. This difference, of course, also affect the election will be a media consumption. Katz, Blumler, Gurevitch try to formulate the basic assumptions of this theory, namely: Audiences are considered active, where the use of the mass media is assumed to have a purpose. The second point is that, in the process of mass communication initiative linking satisfying needs with a selection of media lies in audience members. The third point, the mass media have to contend with the source - other sources to satisfy their needs. Where the need is to satisfy human needs, it depends on the audience concerned. The fourth point, many voters purpose of mass media inferred from the data given audience members. The fifth point is a value judgment about the purposes of media audience specifically.