THEORIES OF LEARNING
There are three main categories or philosophical framework of the theories of learning, namely: behaviorism learning theory, learning theory cognitivism, and constructivism learning theory. Behaviorism learning theory focuses only on observable aspects of learning objective. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. And constructivism views learning as a process in which learners actively build or construct new ideas or concepts.
1. Learning theory Behaviorism
Behavioristic theory is a theory proposed by Gage and Berliner about changes in behavior as a result of the experience. This theory is then developed into the flow of learning psychology that influence the direction of development of the theory and practice of education and learning known as behavioristik flow. This stream emphasizes the formation of behavior that appears to be a result of learning.
Behavioristic theory with a model of stimulus-response relationship, seated people who learned as a passive individual. Response or certain behaviors by using training methods or habituation alone. The emergence of behavior will be stronger when given the strengthening and will disappear when subjected to punishment.
2. Learning Theory Cognitivism
Cognitive learning theory began to develop in the last century as a protest against the theory of behavior that has evolved earlier. The cognitive model has a perspective that learners process infromasi lessons through its work of organizing, storing, and then find the relationship between new knowledge with existing knowledge. This model emphasizes on how information is processed.
Researchers who developed cognitive theory are Ausubel, Bruner and Gagne. Of the three researchers, each has a different emphasis. Ausubel emphasizes on apsek management (organizer), which has a major influence on belajar.Bruner work on grouping or supply concept form as an answer to how students acquire information from the environment.
3. Learning Theory Constructivism
Construction constructive means, in the context of the philosophy of education can be interpreted Constructivism is an effort to build the arrangement of modern civilized life.
Constructivism is the foundation of thinking (philosophy) contextual learning is that knowledge is constructed by man little by little, the results of which extended through the context of limited and not suddenly.
Knowledge is not a set of facts, concepts or rules that are ready to take and remember. Man must construct knowledge and give meaning through real experience.
With the theory of constructivism students can think to solve the problem, look for ideas and make decisions. Students will be better understood because they were directly involved in mebina new knowledge, they will be better able mengapliklasikannya pahamdan in all situations. Selian students engage directly with active, they will remember longer all the concepts.