BASIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
A. Definition of Social Psychology
Social psychology is derived from the psychological and social. Understanding psychology is a science and applied science that studies the human behavior and mental function scientifically. The understanding of the social are all human behavior which describes the relationship nonindividualis. Thus, the notion of social psychology is a science that studies the influence of individualist relationship to human behavior and mental function scientifically.
Here are some of the sense of social psychology, according to experts:Hubert Bonner in his book "Social Psychology" states "Social psychology is the science which studies human behavior."
Michener & Delamater (1999) stated that social psychology is a natural study of the causes of human social behavior.
Sherif & Sherif in his book "An Outline of Social Psychology" gives the following definition: "social psychology is a science that studies the experience and behavior of individual human beings in relation to situations stimulating social." In this definition, the behavior has been associated with the situation -situasi social stimulant.
Shaw & Costanzo (1970) states that social psychology is a science that studies the behavior of individuals as a function of social stimuli.
Boring, Langveld, and Weld in his book "Foundations of Psychology" found: "Social psychology is the science which studies human individuals in kelompokknya and the relationship between man and man."
Kimball Young (1956) states that: "Social psychology is the study of the interaction of individual human beings."
Krech, Crutchfield, and Ballachey (1962) menytakan that: "Social psychology is the study of individual behavior in society."
Joseph E. Mc. Grath (1965) states that: "Social psychology is the science that investigates human behavior is influenced by the presence sebagaiman, beliefs, actions, and symbols of others."
Gordon W. Allport (1968) states that: "Social psychology is the science that seeks to understand and explain bagaimanan thoughts, feelings, and behavior; behavior of individuals are influenced by reality, imagination, or the presence of others."
Secord dann Backman (1974) states that: "Social psychology is the study of individuals in a social context."
B. Scope of Social Psychology
Based on the understanding of social psychology at the top, then Shaw & Constanzo divide the scope of Social Psychology in the three study areas, namely:
The study of social influences on individual processes, for example: the study of perception, motivation and learning process, attribution (nature).
The study of individual processes together, such as language, social attitudes, behavior mimics (imitation), and others. The study of group interaction, such as leadership, communication, power relations, cooperation, competition and conflict.
Social psychology is the object of study is all the gestures or behavior that arises in a social context or social environment. Therefore, the main problem being studied is the influence of social or social stimulus. This happens because the social influences that affect individual behavior. Based Social Psychology is confined themselves to study and investigate the behavior of the individual in relation to the situation of social stimulants (Ahmadi, 2005).
As other sciences, social psychology aims to understand a phenomenon or phenomena. By understanding a phenomenon, we can make predictions about when would-forecasting the occurrence of the phenomenon and how it will happen. Furthermore, with the understanding and forecasting capabilities, we can control the phenomenon to a certain extent. This is actually the purpose of science, including the social psychology.
C. Benefits of Social Psychology
The emergence of a branch of social psychology is certainly expected not just stop at the level of mere theory. However, more than that with the presence of the study of the human concept associated with social life will be able to improve the quality of people's lives. In detail, there are some benefits that can be obtained from this study social psychology. Some of these benefits include:
Provide an overview of the human being, about how manjalin ideal social life. This is related to the nature of human beings as individual creatures as well as social beings. Prevent conflict amid public life. Therefore, by understanding the social psychology can address the gaps ego arising from any individudalam relation to society.
Providing solutions when conflicts arise in the community. By understanding the concepts that exist in social psychology, we can know the character of a society. So that when a conflict arises in the community will be easy to find a solution as a middle way of the existing problems.
As a society guidelines, manage any differences that arise in the community. Thus, in the future every existing differences can be used as capital to achieve a common goal. Not the other way, making the differences that exist to trigger disputes among fellow members of society.
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